Sunday, March 15, 2020
The Insanity Plea Free Online Research Papers The concept of defense by insanity has been in existence since ancient Greek and Roman times, although it did not emerge in American history until the mid 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. In 1638, in colonial America, a delusional Dorothy Talbye was hanged for murdering her daughter. At that time, Massachusetts common law made no distinction between mental illness (insanity) and criminal behavior. In America the use of the insanity defense did not first appear until 1859 in a case in Washington D.C. Then, in 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the common law rule that those who have been found to be insane can not be executed (Ford v. Wainwright 477 U.S. 399). There have been many developments, and changes in the defense by insanity, and how the term Ã¢â¬Å"insanityÃ¢â¬ is defined in a legal sense. Some opponents of the insanity plea believe that psychiatry itself has become a way to justify mercy by making persons Ã¢â¬Å"exceptionalÃ¢â¬ in some way, and therefore not deserving of harsh punishment we as society would deem just and fair consequences for the crime committed. Mental illness itself has not always been recognized as a legitimate disorder and there has often been lacking in understanding it and/or misdiagnosed. What is the legal definition of insanity? If a person is not convicted due to mental insanity, then what becomes of them after court? What are the pros and cons to having the ability to plea insanity? Is there truly such a thing as temporary insanity? What does the Bible say, if anything, about this issue? These are all questions I will explore and answer further throughout this paper. The most influential and most quoted tests of legal insanity are the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten Rules. In 1843, Daniel MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten shot and killed Edward Drummond, the secretary to the Prime Minister of England. MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten was delusional and under the impression that he was being persecuted by a number of people in England and Scotland. MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten had intended to kill the Prime Minister, Robert Peel, and thought that is exactly who he had killed. The Queen and The House of Lords asked the judges in the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten trial to explain the tests by which a person could be properly judged criminally insane. The MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten Rules state: The defendant is insane if they have a diseased mind that caused a defect of reason, such that when they acted, they either did not know the act was wrong or didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the nature and quality of their actions. Critics of the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten have argued that this emphasis on reason is based on the assumption that cognition is the only or the most important mental capacity with relevance to responsibility. This assumption implies that the mind can be separated into compartments and that cognition is the most important determining factor of behavior. For example, it is implied that cognition, emotion, and volition could be compartmentalized, when in fact that is not the case. Even if it were possible to compartmentalize mental functions, this criticism of the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten test emphasizes another important point, which states: a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mood may color how he perceives his actions, and as a result, what he believes about them. Critics also point out the fact that a person may very well understand their actions but for some reason are unable to control them. MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten ignores the aspect of self-control. Psychiatrists agree that it is possible to understand that oneÃ ¢â¬â¢s behavior is wrong, but still be unable to stop themselves from committing the act. The 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s had seen a growing dissatisfaction with the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten test. Viewed as rigid and antiquated, it was criticized in both legal and psychiatric circles. Critics were now calling for the introduction of medical evidence of mental illness into the insanity defense equation. Prior to the Durham Rule, some states had modified the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten test with an Ã¢â¬Å"irresistible impulseÃ¢â¬ provision, which basically absolves a defendant who can distinguish right and wrong but is nonetheless unable to stop himself from committing an act that he knows to be wrong. (This test is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"the policeman at the elbowÃ¢â¬ test, in other words, would the defendant have committed the crime if there were a policeman standing at his elbow?) The Durham Rule was first established in the United States District of Columbia in 1954. In the case of Durham v. United States, Judge David Bazelon ruled that Ã¢â¬Å"an accused is not criminally responsible if his unlawful act was the product of a mental disease or defect. The judge had instructed the jury as such: He instructed that if the jury believed beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant was not suffering from a diseased or defective mental condition at the time he committed the criminal act charged, the jury may find him guilty. He then stated that if the jury believed that the defendant was suffering from a diseased or defective mental condition when he committed the act, but believe beyond a reasonable doubt that the act was not the product of such mental abnormality, they may find the defendant guilty. Unless the jury believed beyond a reasonable doubt that either the defendant was not suffering from a diseased or defective mental condition, or that the act was n ot the product of such abnormality, the jury must find the defendant not guilty by reason of insanity. The Durham Rule proved vague and difficult to apply, and many were concerned that the broad definition would exonerate many more defendants than previous. There was too much confusion over whether Ã¢â¬Å"mental disease and defectÃ¢â¬ should be interpreted as only psychosis or to also include a larger variety of minor disorders as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It was a concern that defendants would begin to use alcoholism or antisocial disorders as excuses for their crimes. It became evident that it was difficult to prove whether the question of a defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s actions was a product of their disease was a factual question for the jury, or for expert psychiatric witnesses. Many skeptics felt that it gave psychiatrists and psychologists too much influence in the courtroom. In 1962, The American Law Institute (A.L.I.) set forth a model Insanity Defense Statute. The A.L.I. standard was intended to allow for the introduction of medical and psychiatric evidence as well as soften the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten standard. In essence, the A.L.I. standard consolidates the principles of the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten Ã¢â¬Å"right and wrongÃ¢â¬ rule and the Ã¢â¬Å"irresistible impulseÃ¢â¬ test. As of 1998, States were split between 2 standards: 22 states used some type of A.L.I. rule, while 26 used a version of the MÃ¢â¬â¢Naughten. During the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70Ã¢â¬â¢s many state courts issued rulings showing a growing concern to protect the civil rights of the mentally ill. At this time many courts eliminated laws providing for automatic confinement of defendants who had been acquitted by reason of insanity. It also struck down an indefinite sentence of confinement. If the evaluations did not find justification for continued confinement, the defendants would be released. After the acquittal of John Hinckley Jr. who attempted to assassinate President Ronald Regan, U.S. Congress responded to the public outrage to the verdict by introducing 26 pieces of legislation designed to abolish and/or modify the insanity defense. During the time of the Hinckley trial, all but one federal circuit had adopted the A.L.I. Ã¢â¬Å"substantial capacityÃ¢â¬ test, and all the new proposals were devoted to creating a stricter federal standard with the intent to avoid acquittals like HinckleyÃ¢â¬â¢s in the future. During the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s through to the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s courts shifted burden and the standard of proof in such a way that made it more difficult to sustain an insanity plea. There are three states that abolished the defense all together: Utah, Montana, and Idaho. The culmination of all of the previous sanity tests, rules, and all standards by which we measure if a defendant is mentally ill and therefore not responsible for their actions, came to a head with the GBMI or Guilty but Mentally Ill verdict. A defendant who receives this verdict is still found legally guilty of the crime they are being tried for, but because they are in fact mentally ill, they have the right to receive mental health treatment while institutionalized. If symptoms desist, however, at that point they must serve the remainder of their sentence in a regular correctional facility. In 2000, there were at least 20 states that have adopted GBMI provisions. So, what becomes of the criminally insane? What happens to a defendant after a judge or jury returns a verdict of insanity does somewhat depend on the crime committed, and on the state in which the trial takes place. In most cases, those found Ã¢â¬Å"not guiltyÃ¢â¬ by reason of insanity are institutionalized in a hospital for severely mentally ill people who have committed crimes. After a period of time, the defendant may request a hearing to determine if he or she is no longer a danger to others or to themselves, or no longer mentally ill, which would make them eligible to be released. Max was a white man in his forties who was brought to a veteranÃ¢â¬â¢s hospital after he was arrested and convicted in South Carolina for check forgery. In the past he had been hospitalized in various psychiatric units for treatment of his mental disorders, and both his wife and VA officials argued that he was not responsible for his actions. For this reason, an agreement had been reached whereby he would receive psychiatric treatment rather than a prison sentence. Physical examinations on admission revealed a small man, alert and orientated, with no signs of psychosis or any other physical or mental disorder. A test for syphilis was positive, but lumbar puncture showed no signs of neurological involvement. Engaging and clearly intelligent, Max spoke proudly of his birth in Vienna, his many achievements in sports, and his scholarly work as a student at the University of Heidelberg. He said that at Heidelberg, Kant and Schopenhauer were his special objects of study, and he also mentioned his deep interest in Shakespeare. He spoke of his skill at fencing, remarking that he was well-known, even feared in Heidelberg and Vienna for his deadly skill with the sword. He denied all the criminal offenses that had brought him to the hospital. His medical records showed that he had been admitted to psychiatric hospitals on six previous occasions. During none of these admissions had a symptom of orthodox psychiatric disorder been noted. On his last admission he had initially been friendly and cooperative with the hospital staff, but soon became disruptive in rather petty ways, such as encouraging fights between mildly psychotic patients. Several months before that admission he had been admitted to a veterans hospital in Maryland; he had complained of having blackout spells where he would loose his temper and unknowingly attack people. These spells were especially unfortunate for his victims, he claimed, because he had at one time been the featherweight boxing champion of England. He described his seizures lasting up to ten hours, during which he would convulse so violently as to rattle the windows and shake the slats off his bed. Max had escaped prosecution for many misdeeds thanks to the help of his wife, in spite the fact that since marrying her, he had also undertaken two different bigamous marriages, all this in addition to another previous legal marriage which had ended in divorce. His present wife was the proprietress of a brothel, but even she appeared embarrassed by the behavior of her husband, who apparently intruded frequently upon the brothelÃ¢â¬â¢s guests, insisting on reminiscing nostalgically about his sports achievements, often parading and roaring at the closed doors behind which the clients were conducting their business. On the occasion of his present hospital admission, on the ward, Max was very cooperative for a while, but soon became restless and hostile. On one occasion he kicked out an iron grill and escaped from the hospital, taking two psychotic patients with him. He committed petty thefts and started fights on the ward, and on one occasion when he was granted leave from the hospital, he escaped from his attendant through a tiny bathroom window and made his way to the nearest bar. He would ask for a loaf of bread in the presence of his psychiatrist. He would then break off a large chunk and place it in his mouth, chew, and remove, then model it into a large crucifix, complete with pedestal, rosettes and a garland of intertwining leaves. The bread would harden quickly and he began painting these crucifixes and presenting them to staff. Despite all his seemingly odd behavior Max was described as an exceptionally intelligent man. It was believed by those who observed him that Max would easily have been able to earn an M.D. or a Ph.D. at most American Universities. In the weeks following his admission, Max began to get in touch with local members of the community who were interested in welfare work and in helping disabled veterans. Soon these well intentioned people would begin to bring pressure on the hospital to allow Max to rehabilitate himself. On several occasions he was given parole, but each time, sometimes after only a few hours, he would become involved in a fight and be brought back to the hospital by police. He would plea his case claiming he had amnesia, he was schizophrenic, claiming he could communicate with his dead ancestors, and one occasion convinced authorities he was deluded, by claiming he was being chased by baboons. (Excerpt from The Rules of Insanity By: Carl Elliot) What does this man de serve, the psychiatric ward or jail? Who makes that decision? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not always a clear cut line. What are the pros and cons of the insanity defense? The pros, and the main reason this defense was ever originally created was the concern by some in the validity and ethics behind punishing a person of a criminal act, if the person committing the act suffers a debilitating mental condition that hinders the person from the ability to execute proper judgment and discernment about the morality of their actions. But with that noble concern is the flip side of the coin. The con to this defense is the repeated abuse of this defense by people who are not mentally ill, but looking for pity and/or a way to escape full consequences of their criminal actions. The insanity defense continues to be a controversy, because those who are acquitted are still usually committed to a hospital for an indeterminate period, which some view as a way to escape their sentence. Is there such a thing as temporary insanity? Yes, there is, however, it is under just as much scrutiny as the regular insanity defense. Lots of sane people are sane merely because they have never had an extremely uncomfortable circumstance that pushed them beyond their capability to cope. Causes for someone to temporarily loose sight of normal rationale could be several different things. Some examples could be, catching a spouse in the act of cheating, the effect of a strong medication, or brainwashing. Such happenings in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life could cause a temporary loss of reasoning ability. The person who committed the crime could have entered a Ã¢â¬Å"dissociative stateÃ¢â¬ briefly and committed an act that, under more normal circumstances, they most likely would not have committed. To serve the purpose of a defense in law, the disorder must show to have caused an absolute alienation of reason, Ã¢â¬Å"ut continua mentis alienationÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"omni intellectu careatÃ¢ â¬ - such a disease that would deprive the defendant of the knowledge of the true aspect and position of things about him, in other words, it hinders the defendant from properly distinguishing between friend or foe. So, what does the Bible have to say about insanity? The Bible does not specifically say whether or not mentally ill people go to heaven. But, there is some biblical evidence that anyone who is not able to make a decision for salvation is covered by ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s death. It would be similar to how many commonly believe that children are automatically taken to heaven when they die until they reach the point where they are able to make a decision for or against Christ. When King David suffered the loss of a child, he comforted himself with the thought, Ã¢â¬Å"Can I bring him back again? I will go to him, but he will not return to meÃ¢â¬ (2 Samuel 12:23) King David was fully aware that one day he would see his child again in heaven. It is from this example that we can see that young children and babies are, by GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grace, covered for salvation by ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s death. I feel we can make a cross reference from this assumption with children, that another group of people who lack the same accountability standards as the rest of us, mentally ill and mentally retarded people are covered by the same salvation principle. It is true that the word of God does not specifically state this. However, this would seem consistent with the character of Christ, as we as Christians are aware of His love, grace, and mercy. Any person who is mentally challenged to the degree that he could not be aware of his sinful state and believe in Christ for himself to receive salvation, would be in the same category as a child and therefore it is not unreasonable to assume that this individual is saved by the grace and mercy of the same God who saves babies and small children. To conclude, I have learned more than I ever thought imaginable about the insanity defense. This has really been a fascinating and incredible journey of research. The insanity defense came into play when the fall of man came into play. We all sin and fall short of the Glory of God. With sin come things that God never intended, like disease of the mind. I have seen more and more that the controversy over the insanity plea will never be completely resolved because it is such a gray area to be in. Only God can ever truly look into the heart of man and see his true heart and mind and intentions. As man with limits to what we can discern about anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s actions or mental capability, we do the best we can to judge those who should face judgment and give help to those who are mentally sick. But until the end of this life, there will always be this issue. Research Papers on The Insanity PleaCapital PunishmentUnreasonable Searches and SeizuresArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Comparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoStandardized TestingEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenQuebec and CanadaPETSTEL analysis of IndiaThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseThree Concepts of Psychodynamic
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Stragtegic Management - Case Study Example The enormous size of the band had also drained its financial resources besides forcing members to rely on supplies from nearby villages. Travelers were now avoiding the forest altogether in order to prevent their goods from being confiscated. Robin Hood has the unique opportunity of encouraging people to travel through the forest by not robbing them and instead levy a transit tax. He also has the chance to contain the size of his band and remove any weak members who had become a liability for the group. These measures are necessary since the SheriffÃ¢â¬â¢s power and determination are growing constantly. Besides enjoying a mighty political clout, the Sheriff has been probing the group for any weaknesses through a dense network of spies. CORE Competencies of the Company The band enjoys the benefit of dedication amongst all members towards the common cause of fighting against the rich and corrupt. Robin Hood has also knit the group into a disciplined unit where each task or responsibi lity is handled efficiently by an experienced member of the group. The group has also established policies to distribute any proceeds from raids equitably among members and has arrangements in place to store and safeguard the surplus. The group has also devised an efficient spying network that collects information on the movements of the Sheriff and other high-profile individuals in the region. Company Basic Objectives The primary objective of the band is to overthrow the corrupt and oppressive administration of the Sheriff. The band also aims at improving the living standards of the lesser privileged people in the region by targeting rich individuals and distributing their loot among the former. The group also works towards establishing alliances with people who have similar grievances against the government and are interested in fighting against this injustice. Company Basic Business Strategy The bandÃ¢â¬â¢s leader, Robin Hood, believes in an inclusive approach in his fight agai nst the Sheriff. His primary strategy is to increase the strength and size of his band to match the might of the Sheriff and his men. All members of the band are also trained rigorously in skills like Archery and their strength and vigil is always put to test. There is also evidence that the group believes in covert tactics as it operates out of the forest and plans all its moves in advance based on gathered intelligence. Current Strategic Management Issues As mentioned previously, the group has grown vastly in size and it has become to maintain discipline and respect within the group. There is also a growing sense of uncertainty among members as experienced by Robin Hood, who could not recognize many of his band members. The bandÃ¢â¬â¢s encampment is now thinly guarded as members have become more relaxed and discipline has become hard to monitor and implement. Robin Hood has given considerable thought to assassinating the Sheriff to take his revenge, but realizes that such a poss ibility is distantly remote. Moreover, the Sheriff enjoys enormous political and royal support and has friends in the judiciary. These factors render any planned move against the Sheriff even more dangerous, raising the chances of retribution if things were to go wrong. Actions which should be taken to address these Issues Firstly, Robin Hood should restrict the size of his band and refrain from including any new members. He should also reduce the size of his current group by retaining the strongest and skilled individuals while assigning
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Benefits provided by Mafia to the American society - Essay Example In Mafia no body is associated with each other as a friend or brother, if you would look closely to the history of Mafia you would find the leaders of Mafia killed either by their own family members or people relatively closer to them, "a world in which a man's murderer was most apt to be his best friend. Intrigue was the name of the game, and the intricate deals that were hatched threaded the national and international scene" (Cook 3). These people of Mafia work as a unit for the benefits of their own, and not for the society, they often have conferences for the planning of events they would be doing in that year or so, "On December 8, 1959, some 150 Mafia dons gathered in secret session in a suite of fifteen rented rooms in a hotel in Worcester, Massachusetts. Their night-long conclave was later described by Attorney General Edward J. McCormack, of Massachusetts, as a "Little Apalachin" conference" (Cook 36). It seems very strange to hear that Mafia can help anyone, but in fact Maf ia has helped numerous countries of the world. In United States of America there are about 26 cities in which Mafia is working, "When some people think of the Mafia, they think of New York City, or may be Chicago. But for a long time, there were roughly twenty-six American Mafia "families" going strong across the United States and in Canada"(26 Family Cities). It would be really unfair to say that Mafia helped the people of the society in a direct manner but somehow it did benefit few people of the society and mentioning here that not every person in the society was helped by the Mafia but only people who had status and powers, however in future most of the people benefited from the activities of Mafia, there were two way benefits that were quite prominent, people helped the Mafia and Mafia helped the people, in an interview I heard that, Mafia used to kill people for the benefits of few people who were previously in negative relations with the people who asked to be killed, at numerous occasion mafia helped tycoons to win their bets, perhaps by persuading or threatening the player who was betted upon, and at numerous occasion it has been seen that the Mafia themselves prepared tycoons in the business world. (Barringham) So these points are justifying few of the bitter realities of the American society, it is quite obvious that fewer people of the society were helped by the Mafia directly, so it would be unfair to say that every one was helped by Mafia but relatively upper society is getting the benefits. There are few more points to justify that who is helped by the Mafia, "In 1957 Joseph Barbara was a successful immigrant living near Binghamton. His hilltop estate boasted seven bedrooms and two horse barns. He also was "connected": He had friends in what would come to be known as La Cosa Nostra [mafia]" (Jack Kelly). There is another interesting point that I would like to bring in your view and that is the related to the money, when the underworld dons or Mafia leaders smuggled different materials, perhaps drugs, precious gems etc. they brought a lot of money in the country which could be very useful for stabilizing the economy of
Friday, January 31, 2020
Sleep and Rapid Eye Movement Essay Aw dreams that magical place that you drift off to in your sleep when everything goes just your way. Its that part of the day when everything is so pleasant and peaceful. Hello fellow classmates, and miss grubb today im here to talk about Ã¢â¬Å" DreamsÃ¢â¬ There are many things that make dreams happen. for example being in a good mood not being angry and getting a good nights sleep can make it happen. You can dream during(REM) rapid eye movement. What is rapid eye movement. Rapid eye movement (REM) is the stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eyes. REM sleep typically occupies 20Ã¢â¬â25% of total sleep, about 90Ã¢â¬â120 minutes of a nights sleep. REM sleep is considered the deepest stage of sleep, and normally occurs close to morning. During a night of sleep, one usually experiences about four or five periods of REM sleep; they are quite short at the beginning of the night and longer toward the end. Many animals and some people tend to wake, or experience a period of very light sleep, for a short time immediately after a bout of REM. The relative amount of REM sleep varies considerably with age. A newborn baby spends more than 80% of total sleep time in REM. now lets talk about dreams themself. The human brain is responsible for many complex creations, but it canÃ¢â¬â¢t invent the image of people. So the Ã¢â¬Å"strangersÃ¢â¬ that you meet in your dreams actually have the faces of people who youÃ¢â¬â¢ve once seen in your real life but forgotten, like your childhood mailman or that guy you bumped into on the sidewalk that one time. Chances are that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve laid your eyes on more than a few individuals, and so the brain now has a huge cast of characters to play with when you drift off to sleep. Except for, in the case of extreme psychological disorder, every human being dreams. In fact, in a recent study, students who were awakened at the beginning of each dream but still allowed 8 hours of sleep, all experienced difficulty concentrating, irritability, hallucinations, and signs of psychosis in a span of three days. When they were allowed their REM sleep, their brains compensated for the lost time by increasing the percentage of the sleep spent in the REM stage. Dreams are a window into the subconscious. Even though most of the time, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re completely random, disorganized, and we forget 90% of them within 10 minutes of waking up; many people have drawn inspiration from their dreams.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Paul Laurence DunbarÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"We Wear the MaskÃ¢â¬ is a lyric poem in which the point of attraction, the mask, represents the oppression and sadness held by African Americans in the late 19th century, around the time of slavery. As the poem progresses, Dunbar reveals the faÃ §ade of the mask, portrayed in the third stanza where the speaker states, Ã¢â¬Å"But let the dream otherwiseÃ¢â¬ (13). The unreal character of the mask has played a significant role over the life of African Americans, whom pretend to put on a smile when they feel sad internally. This ocassion, according to Dunbar, is the Ã¢â¬Å"debt we pay to human guile," meaning that their sadness is related to them deceiving others. Unlike his other poems, with its prevalent use of black dialect, DunbarÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"We Wear the MaskÃ¢â¬ acts as Ã¢â¬Å"an apologia (or justification) for the minstrel quality of some of his dialect poemsÃ¢â¬ (Desmet, Hart and Miller 466). Through the utilization of iambic t etrameter, end rhyme, sound devices and figurative language, the speaker expresses the hidden pain and suffering African Americans possessed, as they were Ã¢â¬Å"tortured soulsÃ¢â¬ behind their masks (10). The poemÃ¢â¬â¢s meter, iambic tetrameter, stands for the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s heartfelt attitude regarding the sorrow that blacks kept away from whites, and in some cases, themselves. In the first stanza, the speaker proclaims that Ã¢â¬Å"[w]ith torn and bleeding hearts we smile, / And mouth with myriad subtletiesÃ¢â¬ (4-5). During the time Dunbar published Ã¢â¬Å"We Wear the Mask,Ã¢â¬ blacks were treated with no dignity and were discriminated against on a constant basis. They felt they could not do anything to stop the series of unfortunate events that were happening to them, such as beatings, lynches, and no sufficient way to earn income or educ... ...eding heartsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"mouth . . . . myriad subtletiesÃ¢â¬ (4-5).Today, everyone is entitled to having equal opportunities in the US. Back in DunbarÃ¢â¬â¢s time, on the other hand, slavery prohibited blacks from being an ordinary person in society. Although they prayed heavily and persevered, they wore the mask for the time-being, in the hopes of living in a world where the color of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s skin would not determine his or her character. Works Cited Dunbar, Paul Laurence. "We Wear the Mask." Prentice Hall: Literature Portfolio. Ed. Christy Desmet, D. Alexis Hart, and Deborah Church Miller. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2007. 466-67. Print. "Paul Laurence Dunbar." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 9 February 2012. Web. 12 February 2012.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
A teacher's way of teaching and leading can have a significant impact on the emotional and mental development of his or her students. As I step into my math class, I see eight students lining up in a row with their hands out in front of them. Mercilessly, the teacher swings his stick at their hands, counting from one to ten. Each time the stick beats down, I can feel as if a nail is hammered into my eardrums. My heart continues to pound as some of the students cries. The mad teacher finishes up with his beatings and yells out, Ã¢â¬Å"Getting 50% and under is unacceptable!The sudden scream from the teacher scares me as my hands squeeze together. Ã¢â¬Å"l am calling each and every single of your parents and letting them know the shame you brought to my class,Ã¢â¬ he shouts. The day ends with me lying on my bed trying to fall asleep as the crying of my classmates haunts my brain making me uncomfortable. After two hours, I am finally able to get some sleep. Next morning, I feel pain f rom the beatings slowly concentrate on my legs as I suddenly wake up. The dorm supervisor wakes us up with his rod at 6:30 in the morning. While I fold my bed and brush my teeth, the supervisor rushes us and shouts, Ã¢â¬Å"Hurry up!Lazy bums! Ã¢â¬ We sloppily get ready and Jog to the main school building. Terrified, I step into the classroom and notice that a quarter of the class didn't show up. I wait for the teacher, convincing myself that it won't be the teacher from yesterday. I wait patiently as I hear footsteps approaching the classroom and suddenly, everyone stops chattering. The same teacher walks in. He glared at us with his angry face getting ready to force his lesson on us. The teacher concludes his lousy lecture and five pages of homework. I take out my notebook and start tackling the questions.A student pproaches the infuriated teacher asking for help. miou don't even know how to solve this? Ã¢â¬ He questions as if he were talking to a three year old. Ã¢â¬Å"Why a re you even in my class? Ã¢â¬ he mocked. Ã¢â¬Å"l suggest you go back and learn one plus one. Ã¢â¬ The teacher sends the student away in embarrassment as he returns to his corner. Please don't let any of this happen to me, I pray. The bell rang. I rush outside of the prison and finally was able to relax my muscles. The supervisor picks us up and walks us toward the cafeteria. I had no stomach for food, after all the nasty events that I have witnessed already.I chew on some dry bread as if my life is hopeless. I head outside my classroom, looking at the grim towers of my school. I took a breath of the smoky air as I mentally prepare myself for my next class. With my next class in session, the grumpy teacher walks around scanning us while we write our quiz. There is a lot of pressure because of the thought of getting beaten that lies within my mind. My hands shake as I try to solve these complex questions. The danger of me even making one mistake me tremble as I let go of my pap er into the pile. I wipe off the sweat on my forehead and wait for my quiz mark.With my fingers crossed, the marking is finished. The look on the teacher's face isn't friendly as he walks up to the front of the room. He announces, Ã¢â¬Å"The following student get to the front desk and put your hands out, Sam, Tom, John, Sarah, JackÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ He continues as I beg that he would not call my name. Ã¢â¬Å"Ethan, Justin, andÃ¢â¬ ¦ Tony,Ã¢â¬ he ends. My heart stops as I think to myself, it's over. I toddle back to the dorm with my hand dreadfully bruised. I lay on my bed thinking about my home and my parents . Tears sta rt rolling down my cheeks as the day ends, along with what little desire I had left to stay.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who significantly influenced European history. Born in Corisca on August 15th 1769, Napoleon first rose to prominence as a general in the French Revolution (Hutt, 4). With his Ã¢â¬Å"strength of will, character, application, and daringÃ¢â¬ (Napoleon) characteristics, Captain Bonaparte made a name for himself. Staging a coup dÃ¢â¬â¢etat in late 1799, Napoleon managed to install himself as First Consul and within three years, as Consul for life (Hutt, 3-4). Ultimately, NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s military background and cunning character led him to become a self-crowned emperor of France beginning in 1804(Dziewanowski, 90). Under NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s new military dictatorship, many of the French RevolutionÃ¢â¬â¢s reformsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, of the scholars and civilians amongst NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s expeditionary force many managed to greatly influence modern understanding of Egyptian culture and language, mark ing a great historical achievement. Enough information and knowledge was collected during NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign by his collection of scholars and artists to complete generations of encyclopedias (Rosensweig, 1). With his troops at hand, Napoleon set out for Egypt hoping to undermine BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s access to India while gaining more land and extensive knowledge. On his way to Egypt, Napoleon conquered Malta and left approximately 3000 of his crewman there (Hutt, 27). After departing from Malta, Napoleon arrived on the coast of Alexandria on July 1st and encountered his first battle on Egyptian soil against the Mamelukes, fearsome warriors that ruled Egypt in the name of the Turkish sultan (Hutt, 28). Within a day, NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s forces managed to conquer the opposing army with its outstanding military tactics. Napoleon organized his infantry within small hollow square formations that faced four directions, allowing his army to repel attacks coming from either side (Dziewanowski, 91). This tactic and NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s military leadership helped the French army to defeat this much larger army. However, the celebration of victory was not long lasted as the British Royal Navy captured al l but two ofShow MoreRelatedNapoleon Bonaparte/ Napoleon I, is considered one of the greatest military leaders in history. He1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFrom an early age Napoleon showed signs of being a great leader. Even as a child he was nicknamed Ã¢â¬Å"Little CorporalÃ¢â¬ , because of his undeniable courage and determination. In 1798 he sat forth on one of his major expeditions in Egypt. Napoleon and his soldiers defeated Egypt and they continued on their journey. Many expeditions later, Napoleon invaded Russia and thus began the downfall of Napoleon. This particular expedition lasted a very long time and two thirds of the army died from: hunger, fatigueRead MoreThe Mistakes of the Brilliant General, Napoleon Bonaparte Essays1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgovernmental overthrow. In reaction to NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s brilliant leading of his armies to victory against royalist forces, the Directory, the acting government, promoted him to general of the French forces that were about to begin a campaign against Austrian forces in Italy (McDougal, 584). NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s operation began phenomenally, with his armies crushing Austrian forces, causing their retreat and the end of their threat to France (McDougal, 584). However, NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s pride took the best of him, and he unnecessarilyRead MoreThe Legacy Of Napoleon Bonaparte And The French Revolution1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespapacy. (pbs.org, nov 27, 2016) NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s many reformations left a lasting mark on the institutions of France and of much of western Europe. But his driving passion was the military expansion of French dominion, and though at his fall, he left France only a little larger than it had been at the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, he was almost universally admired during his lifetime. Napoleon is one of the greatest commanders in history, his campaigns and strategies of war are stilledRead MoreEssay about Napoleon I1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Napoleon I Napoleons life was a very interesting one. Starting a poor boy, hated by most, rising to rule a huge empire, and then finally being destroyed by his own arrogance and ending his life humbled, remembering what he had doe, and leaving it all in his memoirs for the world to read. Napoleon was born in 1769, on the Island of Corsica. His parents, Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte, were poor nobles. When Napoleon was just 10 years old, his father helped to get him a mathematical scholarship toRead MoreNapoleon Bonaparte And The French Revolution1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswaterloo, he rose again and was exiled to the remote island of saint Helena, where he died at 51 of stomach cancer MAJOR POINTS His birth and childhood, His rise to power, His down fall Encyclopedia. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Napoleon_I.aspx NAPOLEONÃ¢â¬â¢S CHILDHOOD AND GROWTH Napoleon was born on 15 August 1769, to Carlo Buonaparte and Maria Letizia in Ajaccio, the capital of the island of Corsica. He was their fourth child and third son. This was a year after the island was conquered byRead MoreNapoleon timeline Essay1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFrench Revolution. France November 15Ã¢â¬â17, 1796 NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to outflank the Austrian army, and cut its line of retreat before it could lift the siege of Mantua, resulted in the Battle of Arcole. Arcole, Italy 1798 The Capture of Malta, and the expedition into Syria happened, along with the Egyptian Campaign, which was NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign to protect French trade interests and undermine BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s access to India. Malta, Egypt, and Syria November 9,1799 Napoleon becomes dictatorRead MoreAlexander the Great vs Napoleon Bonaparte, What I Got so Far Essay822 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstill taught at military schools worldwide. Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was born on a bright July day in 356 B.C. and died in June of 323 B.C. During his lifetime he was: King of Macedonia (336-323), Pharaoh of Egypt (332-323), King of Persia (330-323), and the King of Asia (331-323). From reading that alone, it is known that he was a conqueror and successful ruler. Alexander was the son of his predecessor Phillip II who passed away in 336 B.C. leaving the throneRead MoreNapoleon Bonapartes Biography Essay1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdetermined, and he eventually learned enough French to attend the military academy Brienne. There he was treated with the same attitude for being a Corsican. Napoleon did very well in school and was recommended to a military school in Paris. In 1784, NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Carlo, died. Letizia was left to raise Napoleon and his 7 brothers and sisters by herself. Napoleon didnÃ¢â¬â¢t let the death of his father bring him down. He had already shown that he was hard working, determined, and motivated. In the fallRead MoreNapoleon Bonaparte : The Downfall Of The French Revolution702 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn 1796, he would marry Josephine de Beauharnais. A few days later, they would separate. It was during this year that NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity would reach its peak. Napoleon and his French army would win several battles defeating other countries like Italy and Austria. He returned to Paris as a hero, and he made the choice to invade Egypt. In 1798, he would sail with 35,000 men to Egypt. He would win the battle called the Battle of the Pyramids. In the same year, the British fleet would destroy the FrenchRead MoreNapoleon a Great Military Leader1029 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescountries. Napoleon put a lot of effort into extending his empire all over Europe. He was a master in leadership, and tactics in warfare. He knew the best way to motivate his army. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership skills were proved during the revolutionary period with the siege of Toulon (Dwyer, 2008), and the first Italy campaign in 1796 (Andrew, 2001). In addition, his leadership skills were showed during the battles of Ulm, Austerlitz, and Jena during 1805-1806. Towards the end of his empire, the weaknesses